The map above shows the Jewish population of Europe in both 1933 and 2015 by country. Most countries still had much lower Jewish populations in 2015 compared to 1933.
This is largely due to the long lasting effects of The Holocaust, when over six million European Jews were systematically murdered by Hitler and the Nazis.
Emigration to both Israel and the United States after World War 2 and again after the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe in 1989, also contributed somewhat to the decline.However, not all countries saw their Jewish population decrease.
France is the most notable example of a country to have an increase in its Jewish population, growing from an estimated 225,000 in 1933 to an estimated 475,000 in 2015. This increase was largely due to the exodus of Maghrebi Jews from North Africa to France.
The only other countries to see an increase were: Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, and Spain.
All other countries saw their Jewish populations decline, in many cases dramatically. For example, Poland had an estimated Jewish population of over 3 million in 1933 yet only around 3,200 lived there in 2015. Similarly, Romania had just under a million Jews living in the country in 1933, yet has fewer than 10,000 in 2015.
The source for the 1933 population figures come from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and those for 2015 come from the Berman Jewish DataBank.
In 1933, a total of around 9.5 million Jews lived in Europe and accounted for over 60% of the world’s Jewish population of 15.3 million. By 2015 the number in Europe had declined to around 1.4 million accounting for less than 10% of the world’s Jewish population.